segunda-feira, 29 de maio de 2017

Guarantees and securities in Brazilian Law


Brazilian Law provides for wide array of guarantees and securities. Herein below, you will find a brief explanation of the main varieties.

1.         Endorsement (aval)

The endorsement is a personal guarantee of the payment of an instrument of credit. Under the endorsement, the guarantor promises to pay the debt in the event the borrower fails to do so. The creditor becomes invested in the power of collecting the debt from the guarantor or the borrower as soon as the instrument of credit becomes due.

The endorsement is a type of guarantee mainly used in instruments of credit (on the back of note, for example; or a personal endorsement made by the director of a firm). 

It is a very commong guarantee. 

2.         Surety (fiança)

It is a written obligation. It is a contract whereby the surety guarantees the fulfillment of the obligation of the debtor in the event the latter fails to do so. It also guarantees the payment of compensation or penalty for non-fulfillment of an obligation undertaken by the debtor.

The surety may be granted by individuals or legal entities, including banks, whereby the debtor hires a financial institution to act as guarantor of an obligation.

It is very common in rental agreements and in some kinds of loans.

3.         Bill of Exchange (letra de câmbio)

It is a Marketable title. It consists of a payment order by means of which an individual demands that another individual pays a certain amount to a third party. It comprises details such as payment, date and place to perform it.

This is the same Bill of Exchange used in the US and in Europe. However, in Brazil its use is very limited. Only markets where the players are used to it actually use it. Most people will prefer a Promissory Note (see below).

4.         Promissory Note (nota promissória)

An instrument of credit represented by an unconditional promise in writing between two parties, signed by one who agrees to pay on a certain date a certain sum of money to the other or the bearer of the promissory note.

The promissory note is more widely used in Brazil, in comparison with the Bill of Exchange.

5.         Commercial Pledge (penhor mercantil)

Commercial pledge is to have a commercial good ensuring the fulfillment of an obligation. It becomes valid with the transference of possession of the property of the good by the debtor to the creditor.

The pledge shall be in written form and is usually registered before the Registry of Deeds and Documents. 

This is not too common.


6.         Security deposit of instruments of credit (caução de títulos de crédito)

Derived from the commercial pledge, the security deposit of instruments of credit is a guarantee established over credits held by the guarantor.

In the security deposit, the object of the guarantee is the right of the guarantor represented by a negotiable instrument. Therefore, the need to guarantee demands the delivery of the instrument to the creditor, by means of an agreement executed between the parties.

Through the security deposit agreement, the creditor becomes able to exercise all the rights to the instrument of credit, but always on behalf of the debtor, ie, there is no transfer of the property of the instrument of credit.

This is a common kind of guarantee, since it is easy to manage.

7.         Trust receipt (alienação fiduciária)

The trust receipt operates by means of the transfer of ownership of a certain good to the creditor in order to secure the fulfillment of an obligation of the debtor, who maintains the direct ownership of the good, as depositary.

In this type of guarantee, if the debtor fails to settle the obligation at the due date, then the creditor may require action of search and seizure of the sold good, and after taking possession of such good, it may sell it to a third party and settle the outstanding debt.

This is more commonly used by banks, in lease and financing agreements.

8.         Antichresis (anticrese)

The antichresis grants the creditor the right of receiving the real property from the debtor and also the right to earn profits from such real property for the term the contract is in force.

This is rarely used.

9.         Mortgage (hipoteca)

A debt instrument, secured by the collateral of specified real estate property, that the borrower is obliged to pay back with a predetermined set of payments. Under Brazilian Law, mortgages must be registered before the Real State Registry. In the event the debtor fails to provide payment in the due date, the rights of ownership and possession over the real property are transferred to the creditor.

This is fairly used, especially in the financing of real estate.


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